Physiographical, Central America is the narrowing isthmus of southern North America, with sole and diverse features lengthen from the north-western boundaries of Belize and Guatemala southeastward to the Isthmus of Panama where it attached to the Colombian Pacific Lowlands in northwestern South America. On the other hand, some physiographists find its northern boundary at some point in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico.
Central America has an area of some 592,000 square kilometers. The Pacific Ocean deceit to the southwest, the Caribbean Sea deceit to the northeast, and the Gulf of Mexico lies to the north. Most of Central America respite atop the Caribbean Plate.
The section is geologically vigorous, with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes taking place from time to time. In 1976 Guatemala was smacked by a major earthquake, killing 23,000 people; Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, was confounded by earthquakes in 1931 and 1972, the last one killed about 5,000 people; three earthquakes confounded El Salvador, one in 1986 and two in 2001; one earthquake confounded northern and central Costa Rica in 2009 killing at least 34 people; in Honduras a powerful earthquake killed 7 people in 2009.
Volcanic eruptions are ordinary in the region. In 1968 the Arenal Volcano, in Costa Rica, erupted and killed 87 people. Prolific soils from battered volcanic lavas have made it possible to maintain impenetrable populations in the agriculturally prolific highland areas.
Central America has a lot of mountain ranges; the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, the Cordillera Isabelia and the Cordillera de Talamanca. Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are appropriate for the people; in fact the majority of the population of Honduras, Costa Rica and Guatemala exist in valleys. Valleys are also apposite for the production of coffee, beans and other crops.